Heart Disease Risk Factors
Heart disease risk factors are conditions or habits that raise your risk for coronary heart disease and heart attack. There are a number of known risk factors some of which you can control, and other you can’t. Risk factors you can control include:
- High blood cholesterol and high triglyceride levels
- High blood pressure
- Diabetes and prediabetes
- Overweight and obesity
- Lack of physical activity
- Unhealthy diet
The risk factors you can't control are age, gender, and family history.
Many people have at least one heart disease risk factor. Your risk for heart disease and heart attack increases with the number of risk factors you have and their severity. Also, some risk factors, such as smoking and diabetes, present a greater risk for heart disease and heart attack than others. If you are a smoker though and would like to quit for good, then there are many ways that you could stop. Some people like using nicotine patches to help them, whilst others prefer using vaping as an alternative to smoking. If this is something that interests you then you could easily get vape pens to help you quit smoking for good.
Preventable Risk Factors
High blood cholesterol is a condition in which there's too much cholesterol—a waxy, fat-like substance—in your blood. The higher your blood cholesterol level, the greater your risk for heart disease and heart attack.
Cholesterol travels in the bloodstream in small packages called lipoproteins (LI-po-pro-teens). Two major kinds of lipoproteins carry cholesterol throughout your body:
Low-density lipoproteins (LDL). LDL cholesterol is sometimes called "bad" cholesterol. This is because it carries cholesterol to tissues, including your heart arteries. The higher the level of LDL cholesterol in your blood, the greater your risk for heart disease.
High-density lipoproteins (HDL). HDL cholesterol is sometimes called "good" cholesterol. This is because it helps remove cholesterol from your arteries. A low HDL cholesterol level raises your risk for heart disease.
A number of factors affect your blood cholesterol levels. For example, after menopause, women's LDL cholesterol levels tend to rise and their HDL cholesterol levels tends to fall. Other factors, such as age, gender, and diet, also affect your cholesterol levels.
Healthy levels of both LDL and HDL cholesterol will prevent plaque from building up in your arteries. Routine blood tests can show whether your blood cholesterol levels are healthy. Talk to your doctor about having your cholesterol tested and what the results mean.
Triglycerides are another type of fat found in the blood. Some studies suggest that a high level of triglycerides in the blood also may raise the risk for heart disease, particularly in women.
High Blood Pressure
"Blood pressure" is the force of blood pushing against the walls of your arteries as your heart pumps out blood. If this pressure rises and stays high over time, it can damage your heart and lead to plaque buildup.
Often, high blood pressure (HBP) has no signs or symptoms. However, the condition can be detected using a simple test that involves placing a blood pressure cuff around your arm.
Most adults should have their blood pressure checked at least once a year. Talk to your doctor about how often you should have your blood pressure checked. If you have HBP, you will likely need to have your blood pressure checked more often.
Blood pressure numbers consist of systolic (sis-TOL-ik) and diastolic (di-a-STOL-ik) pressures. Systolic blood pressure is the pressure when your heart beats. Diastolic blood pressure is the pressure when your heart is at rest between beats.
You will most often see blood pressure numbers written with the systolic number above or before the diastolic number, such as 120/80 mmHg. (The mmHg is millimeters of mercury—the units used to measure blood pressure.)
All levels above 120/80 mmHg raise your risk for heart disease. This risk grows as blood pressure levels rise. Only one of the two blood pressure numbers has to be above normal to put you at greater risk for heart disease and heart attack.
Blood pressure normally rises with age and body size. You are more likely to develop HBP if you are overweight or have diabetes.
Diabetes and Prediabetes
Diabetes is a disease in which the body's blood sugar level is too high. The two types of diabetes are type 1 and type 2.
In type 1 diabetes, the body's blood sugar level is high because the body doesn't make enough insulin. Insulin is a hormone that helps move blood sugar into cells, where it's used for fuel. In type 2 diabetes, the body's blood sugar level is high mainly because the body doesn't use its insulin properly.
Over time, a high blood sugar level can lead to increased plaque buildup in your arteries. Having diabetes doubles your risk for heart disease.
Prediabetes is a condition in which your blood sugar level is higher than normal, but not as high as it is in diabetes. If you have prediabetes and don't take steps to manage it, you're likely to develop type 2 diabetes within 10 years. You're also at higher risk for heart disease.
Being overweight or obese raises your risk for type 2 diabetes. With modest weight loss and moderate physical activity, people who have prediabetes may be able to delay or prevent type 2 diabetes. They also may be able to lower their risk for heart disease and heart attack. Weight loss and physical activity also can help control diabetes.
Type 2 diabetes develops over time and sometimes has no symptoms. Your doctor should test your blood sugar levels regularly to check for diabetes and prediabetes.
Overweight and Obesity
The terms "overweight" and "obesity" refer to a person's overall body weight and whether it's too high. Overweight is having extra body weight from muscle, bone, fat, and/or water. Obesity is having a high amount of extra body fat.
The most commonly used measure of overweight and obesity is body mass index (BMI). BMI is calculated from your height and weight.
In adults, a BMI of 18.5 to 24.9 is considered normal. A BMI of 25 to 29.9 is considered overweight. A BMI of 30 or above is considered obese. Over two-thirds of American adults are overweight, and almost one-third of these adults are obese. You can use the NHLBI's online BMI calculator to figure out your BMI, or your doctor can help you.
Being overweight or obese can raise your risk for heart disease and heart attack. This is mainly because overweight and obesity are linked to other heart disease risk factors, such as high blood cholesterol and triglyceride levels, high blood pressure, and diabetes.
Smoking tobacco or long-term exposure to secondhand smoke raises your risk for heart disease and heart attack.
Smoking triggers a buildup of plaque in your arteries. Smoking also increases the risk of blood clots forming in your arteries. Blood clots can block plaque-narrowed arteries and cause a heart attack.
Some research shows that smoking raises your risk for heart disease in part by lowering HDL cholesterol levels.
The more you smoke, the greater your risk for heart attack. Studies show that if you quit smoking, you cut your risk for heart attack in half within a year. The benefits of quitting smoking occur no matter how long or how much you've smoked.
Lack of Physical Activity
Inactive people are nearly twice as likely to develop heart disease as those who are active. A lack of physical activity can worsen other heart disease risk factors, such as high blood cholesterol and high triglyceride levels, high blood pressure, diabetes and prediabetes, and overweight and obesity.
Being physically active is one of the most important things you can do to keep your heart healthy. The good news is that even modest amounts of physical activity are good for your health. The more active you are, the more you will benefit.
An unhealthy diet can raise your risk for heart disease. For example, foods that are high in saturated and trans fats and cholesterol raise LDL cholesterol. Thus, you should try to limit these foods.
Saturated fats are found in some meats, dairy products, chocolate, baked goods, and deep-fried and processed foods. Trans fats are found in some fried and processed foods. Cholesterol is found in eggs, many meats, dairy products, commercial baked goods, and certain types of shellfish.
It is also important to limit foods that are high in sodium (salt) and added sugars. A high-salt diet can raise your risk for high blood pressure. Added sugars will give you extra calories without nutrients like vitamins and minerals. This can cause you to gain weight, which raises your risk for heart disease. Added sugars are found in many desserts, canned fruits packed in syrup, fruit drinks, and non-diet sodas.
You also should try to limit how much alcohol you drink. Too much alcohol will raise your blood pressure. It also will add calories, which can cause weight gain.
Stress and anxiety may contribute to the development of heart disease. Stress and anxiety also can trigger your arteries to tighten. This can raise your blood pressure and your risk for heart attack.
The most commonly reported trigger for a heart attack is an emotionally upsetting event, especially one involving anger. Stress also may indirectly raise your risk for heart disease if it makes you more likely to smoke or overeat foods high in fat and sugar.
As you get older, your risk for heart disease and heart attack rises. This is in part due to the slow buildup of plaque inside your heart arteries, which can start during childhood.
In men, the risk for heart disease increases after age 45. In women, the risk increases after age 55.
Most people have some plaque buildup in their heart arteries by the time they're in their seventies. However, only about 25 percent of those people have chest pain, heart attacks, or other signs of heart disease.
Before age 55, women have a lower risk for heart disease than men. After age 55, however, the risk for heart disease increases similarly in both women and men. This is because before menopause, estrogen provides some protection against heart disease for women.
Some risk factors may affect heart disease risk differently in women than in men. For example, diabetes raises the risk for heart disease more in women.
Family history plays a role in heart disease risk. Your risk increases if your father or brother was diagnosed with heart disease before 55 years of age, or if your mother or sister was diagnosed with the disease before 65 years of age.
However, having a family history of heart disease doesn't mean that you will have it too. This is especially true if your affected family member smoked or had other heart disease risk factors that were not well treated.
Making lifestyle changes and taking medicines to treat other risk factors often can lessen genetic influences and stop or slow the progress of heart disease.
You can prevent and control many heart disease risk factors with lifestyle changes and medicines. The good news is that many lifestyle changes help control several heart disease risk factors at the same time. For example, physical activity lowers your blood pressure, helps control diabetes and prediabetes, reduces stress, and helps control your weight.
A healthy lifestyle can lower the risk for heart disease and may prevent current heart disease from worsening. A healthy lifestyle includes:
Following a Healthy Diet
A healthy diet is an important part of a healthy lifestyle. To lower your risk for heart disease and heart attack, you should follow a diet that's:
- Low in saturated and trans fats. Saturated fats are found in some meats, dairy products, chocolate, baked goods, and deep-fried and processed foods. Trans fats are found in some fried and processed foods. Both types of fat raise your LDL, or "bad," cholesterol level.
- High in the types of fat found in fish and olive oil. These fats are rich in omega-3 fatty acids. Omega-3 fatty acids lower your risk for heart attack, in part by helping prevent blood clots.
- High in fiber, whole grains, fruits, and vegetables. A diet that's rich in these elements not only helps lower your LDL cholesterol level, but also provides nutrients that may help protect against heart disease.
- Low in salt and sugar. A low-salt diet can help you manage your blood pressure. A low-sugar diet can help you prevent weight gain and control diabetes and prediabetes.
Research suggests that drinking small to moderate amounts of alcohol regularly also can lower your risk for heart disease. One drink a day can lower your risk by raising your HDL, or "good," cholesterol level. One drink is a glass of wine, beer, or a small amount of hard liquor.
If you don't drink, this isn't a recommendation to start using alcohol. If you're pregnant, if you're planning to become pregnant, or if you have another health condition that could make alcohol use harmful, you shouldn't drink.
Also, too much alcohol can cause you to gain weight and raise your blood pressure and triglyceride levels. In women, even one drink a day may raise the risk for certain types of cancer.
Maintaining a Healthy Weight
Following a healthy diet and being physically active can help you maintain a healthy weight. Controlling your weight helps you control heart disease risk factors.
If you're overweight or obese, try to lose weight. A loss of just 5 to 10 percent of your current weight can lower your heart disease risk. To lose weight, cut back your calorie intake and do more physical activity.
Eat smaller portions and choose lower calorie foods. Don't feel that you have to finish the entrees served at restaurants. Many restaurant portions are oversized and have too many calories for the average person.
If you're obese, or if you haven't been active in the past, start physical activity slowly and build up the intensity over time.
Doing Physical Activity Regularly
You don't have to be an athlete to lower your risk for heart disease. People gain some health benefits from as little as 60 minutes of moderate-intensity aerobic activity per week.
For major health benefits, adults should do at least 150 minutes (2.5 hours) of moderate-intensity aerobic activity or 75 minutes (1 hour and 15 minutes) of vigorous-intensity aerobic activity each week.
Another option is to do a combination of both. A general rule is that 2 minutes of moderate-intensity activity counts the same as 1 minute of vigorous-intensity activity.
The more active you are, the more you will benefit.
If you have heart disease or symptoms such as chest pain and dizziness, talk to your doctor before you start a new exercise plan. Find out how much and what kinds of physical activity are safe for you. Avoid exercising outdoors when air pollution levels are high or the temperature is very hot or cold.
If you smoke, quit. Smoking can raise your risk for heart disease and heart attack and worsen other heart disease risk factors. Talk to your doctor about programs and products that can help you quit smoking. Also, try to avoid secondhand smoke.
If you have trouble quitting smoking on your own, consider joining a support group. Many hospitals, workplaces, and community groups offer classes to help people quit smoking.
Learning how to manage stress, relax, and cope with problems can improve your emotional and physical health. Having supportive people in your life with whom you can share your feelings or concerns can help relieve stress.
Physical activity, medicine, and relaxation therapy also can help relieve stress. You may want to consider participating in a stress management program.
Other Lifestyle Concerns
Figure out what's stopping you from making or sticking to your lifestyle changes. Think about how to overcome these issues. For example, if you're too tired to exercise after work, you may want to try working out before you go to work.
Make a plan to carry out your lifestyle changes that includes specific, realistic goals. Act on your plan and work toward your goals. You may want to do so with the help of a support group or supportive friends and family.
Reward yourself for the gains you've made. Think about what you need to do to maintain your lifestyle changes and avoid unhealthy habits.
Don't give up if you go off your diet or exercise plan or start smoking again. Instead, find out what you need to do to get back on track so you can meet your goals. Many people find that it takes more than one try to make long-term lifestyle changes.
Changing the eating and activity habits of children takes time. Start with small, easy steps. For example, cut out after-dinner snacks or go for an after-dinner walk instead of watching TV.
Sometimes lifestyle changes aren't enough to reduce your blood pressure, cholesterol levels, or other risk factors. Your doctor also may recommend medicines. For example, you may need medicines to:
- Lower your LDL cholesterol
- Lower your blood pressure
- Lower your blood sugar level
- Prevent blood clots and/or inflammation
Take your medicines as prescribed. Don't cut back on the dosage unless your doctor tells you to. If you have side effects or other problems related to your medicines, talk to your doctor. He or she may be able to provide other options.
You should still follow a heart healthy lifestyle, even if you take medicines to control your risk factors.